Enhancing Memory: Strategies for the Short and Long Term

May 17, 2023 | 


Joanna Newman


Memory is a cognitive process that we often take for granted until we find ourselves forgetting important details. Whether you´re preparing for a test or want to improve your memory for the long term, various techniques can help enhance this crucial brain function. This article will guide you through scientifically-backed strategies for improving your memory, both in the short run for exam preparation and in the long haul for overall cognitive health.

Short-term Memory Boosting: Preparing for a Test

1. Regular and Spaced Review

Research consistently shows that spaced repetition—reviewing information periodically over time—significantly improves recall. This technique leverages our brain´s natural learning and memory processes, allowing us to absorb and retain more information. Rather than cramming all your study material in one night, try spreading out your study sessions over several days or weeks.

What is Spaced Repetition?

Spaced repetition is a study technique that involves breaking up information into small chunks and reviewing them consistently over a long period. The idea is to reduce the amount of information being processed at any one time, which makes the learning process more manageable and effective.

How Does It Work?

Spaced repetition works based on the "spacing effect," a psychological principle that suggests our brains absorb and retain information more effectively when learning is spread out over time. This method is in contrast to "massed practice" (cramming), which involves intensive studying in a short period.

In practical terms, if you´re learning a new topic, instead of spending four hours in one day trying to memorize everything, you would study for perhaps an hour a day over four days. You review the material, take a break, then review it again. Each review session reinforces the information in your memory.

Applying Spaced Repetition

A common method of applying spaced repetition is through flashcards and specialized software. For instance, if you´re studying for a test, you might create flashcards for each piece of information you need to remember. Initially, you´d review all the flashcards. Then, over the subsequent days or weeks, you would regularly review the flashcards, spacing out the reviews each time.

For example, you might review a flashcard one hour after initially studying it, then one day later, then three days after that, then a week later, and so on. The idea is to extend the interval between reviews each time, which forces your brain to retrieve the information from memory, strengthening the recall process.

Why is it Effective?

Spaced repetition leverages how our brains work by integrating new knowledge slowly and reinforcing it over time, which leads to more effective long-term learning. It helps transform information from your short-term memory (where it´s easily forgotten) to your long-term memory (where it can be stored indefinitely).

Overall, regular and spaced reviews can be a powerful tool for improving memory and enhancing the effectiveness of studying, making it a go-to strategy for test preparation and long-term learning.

2. Active Recall

Active recall is a study technique that involves actively trying to remember information without looking at the source. This method is more effective than simply reading or highlighting text because it encourages your brain to strengthen the neural pathways associated with the information, making it easier to retrieve later.

What is Active Recall?

Active recall involves actively trying to remember information without looking at the source. For instance, after reading a section of a textbook, you might close the book and try to summarize what you just read in your own words. This technique is far more effective than simply re-reading the material, as it forces your brain to retrieve and use the information, which strengthens the memory trace.

How to Apply Active Recall

There are many ways to practice active recall. Here are a few methods:

Why is Active Recall Effective?

Active recall is based on the testing effect, a psychological principle that suggests the act of retrieving information from memory makes it easier to recall in the future. Each time you successfully recall a piece of information, you reinforce the memory trace, making it easier to retrieve the information later.

Active recall is particularly effective when combined with spaced repetition. After actively recalling a piece of information, you might wait a certain period before trying to recall it again, gradually increasing the interval between recalls. This combination of active recall and spaced repetition can significantly improve long-term retention of information, making it an effective strategy for exam preparation and lifelong learning.

3. Use Mnemonics

Mnemonic devices are a great tool for memorizing information. These can be acronyms, visual images, or rhymes that make the material more memorable. The more senses you involve in the learning process, the more likely you are to remember the information.

4. Practice Testing

Practice testing, or retrieval practice, involves regularly testing yourself on the material you´re trying to learn. This method has been shown to significantly improve long-term retention and is more effective than re-reading or note-taking.
For example: Teach the Material: Try explaining the material to someone else without looking at your notes. This forces you to recall the information and put it in your own words, which is a form of testing.

Practice testing also has the benefit of familiarizing you with the testing environment, which can reduce anxiety and improve performance on the actual test.

Furthermore, practice testing allows you to identify areas of weakness in your understanding, so you can target your studying more effectively. If there are questions or flashcards you consistently struggle with, you know to spend more time reviewing that material.

5. Sleep Well

Adequate sleep is vital for memory consolidation—the process where our brains solidify what we´ve learned. Make sure you´re getting enough rest, especially in the days leading up to your test.

Long-term Memory Improvement: Lifelong Cognitive Health

1. Regular Physical Exercise

Physical exercise isn´t just good for your body; it´s also beneficial for your brain. Regular exercise increases blood flow to the brain, supports the growth of new neurons, and helps protect existing neurons. All these effects contribute to improved memory and cognitive function.

2. Healthy Diet

A balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains provides essential nutrients for brain health. Certain foods, such as those rich in omega-3 fatty acids (like fish and flaxseeds), antioxidants (found in berries and dark chocolate), and flavonoids (present in tea and citrus fruits) are particularly beneficial for memory.

3. Mental Stimulation

Keeping your mind active is crucial for long-term memory. Engage in activities that challenge your brain, such as reading, puzzles, or learning a new skill or language. These activities strengthen the neural connections in your brain and can even create new ones.

4. Social Interaction

Studies have shown that social interaction can help improve memory and cognitive function. Engage in regular social activities, like spending time with friends and family, joining clubs or organizations, or volunteering.

5. Stress Management

Chronic stress can impair memory and cognitive function. Incorporate stress management techniques, such as mindfulness, meditation, yoga, or deep-breathing exercises, into your routine to protect your brain health.


In conclusion, while memory enhancement might seem like a daunting task, it´s entirely achievable with consistency and the right techniques. Whether you´re preparing for a test or aiming for long-term cognitive health, strategies like regular and spaced review, active recall, and practice testing can significantly improve your memory capabilities.

It´s important to remember that these are not quick fixes but habits that need to be cultivated over time. Just as physical strength requires regular exercise, so does your cognitive strength and memory. Coupling these practices with a healthy lifestyle — a balanced diet, regular exercise, good sleep, stress management, and social interaction — creates a robust framework for memory enhancement and overall cognitive health.

Embracing these strategies can lead to improved academic performance, a sharper mind in your daily life, and a healthier brain in the long term. So, why wait? Start incorporating these practices today, and unlock your brain´s full potential.