Do Animals Need Company?

June 6, 2023 | 


Joanna Newman



The question of whether animals require social companionship is both fascinating and complex. Like humans, many animal species demonstrate a distinct need for companionship, while others lead more solitary lives. While it´s important to understand that anthropomorphism—the tendency of attributing human characteristics to non-human entities—can sometimes cloud our perceptions, the subject still warrants a profound scientific exploration.

In this article, we will delve into the intricate social behaviors of various animal species, providing insights into the benefits and drawbacks of socialization, and offering a nuanced understanding of the primal question: Do animals need company?

The Spectrum of Social Interaction in Animals

Broadly speaking, the animal kingdom is a spectrum where solitary animals are at one end and highly social animals at the other. Solitary animals like tigers, pandas, or the northern leopard frog tend to live alone, mainly interacting with others of their kind for mating purposes. On the other hand, species like elephants, wolves, and many types of primates show highly intricate social structures, often living in large family groups or ´societies.´

However, labeling animals as merely ´social´ or ´solitary´ can oversimplify the complexities of animal behaviors. Social behavior is often a matter of degree and can change based on factors such as the availability of resources, threats from predators, or changes in the environment.

Benefits of Socialization

The benefits of socialization in animals are manifold. For many, it aids survival. By living in groups, animals can more effectively defend against predators, locate food, and care for their young.

In species such as meerkats and dolphins, group living facilitates cooperative behavior, where responsibilities such as foraging, babysitting, and protection are shared among the members. Cooperative behavior not only ensures survival but also contributes to the efficiency and productivity of the group.

Socialization is also crucial for learning and development in many species. Young elephants, for example, learn vital skills and social norms from the older members of their herd. Many bird species learn to sing by imitating the adults around them.

The mental health benefits of companionship in animals are also increasingly being recognized. Studies have shown that social interaction can reduce stress in animals, much like in humans. Isolation can lead to behavioral problems, suggesting a psychological need for companionship.

Drawbacks of Socialization

Despite the numerous benefits, social living isn´t without its drawbacks. Disease transmission is one significant disadvantage. A disease can spread rapidly within a densely populated group, which could be devastating.

Competition is another challenge. In a group, animals compete for resources such as food, mates, and territory. This competition can lead to conflict and sometimes result in physical harm.

Also, living in groups can increase visibility to predators, negating the benefits of collective defense.

The Case of Pets

Pet animals offer a unique perspective on the need for companionship. Domestic dogs, descended from pack-living wolves, often display a strong need for social interaction. Dogs left alone for long periods can develop separation anxiety and engage in destructive behaviors.

Cats, though historically solitary, have adapted to enjoy human company and that of other cats, demonstrating flexibility in social behavior. Moreover, pets like rabbits and guinea pigs are highly social and often do best in pairs or small groups, displaying signs of depression and loneliness when left alone.


The question "Do animals need company?" is not a simple yes-or-no query. It varies greatly among species, determined by an intricate balance of ecological factors, evolutionary history, and individual personality traits. However, understanding that many animals do exhibit a genuine need for companionship allows us to appreciate the complexity of the animal kingdom and encourages empathy and responsible behavior towards our fellow creatures.

In the face of increasing human encroachment on natural habitats, it is important to respect these social structures and needs, recognizing that they are fundamental to the survival and wellbeing of many species. Further research into animal social behavior not only enhances our understanding of the animal kingdom but also offers invaluable insights into the roots of our own sociality.

In the end, whether through the lens of a biologist, pet owner, or wildlife enthusiast, acknowledging the rich social lives of animals helps to forge a more compassionate world for all inhabitants, humans and animals alike.